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A Summary of the Cushite Peoples of Eastern Africa

 

The term Cushite derives from the ancient peoples of northeastern Africa, whose heritage can be traced most clearly in the languages descended from those of the ancient peoples. In broad terms the peoples now designated Cushite are the cultural descendants of those peoples.

However, the term Cushite is primarily a linguistic designation, the standard way of referencing people groups, with an ethno-linguistic designation. Languages have a much more stable and traceable identity and heritage than cultural groups. The Cushite peoples are thus those who speak languages of the Cushite cluster in the Afro-Asiatic family. Thus these cultural groups may be of diverse physical/racial types and exhibit a variety of physical cultures.

Peoples are listed with information from the Ethnologue on the language cluster they belong to. Thus the order may not be strictly alphabetical. In some cases there is other source information or my commentary. Some people names differ from language names. Where information in the Ethnologue excerpt differs, my header information should be taken as updating.

Evangelization status is given in the standard categories of AD2000, from least to greatest: World A, unreached, unevangelized, evangelized, Christian. In some cases, "Christian" indicates predominantly Christian, rather than strictly percentage status in the AD2000 scale.

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Cushite Peoples -- 1,000,000 and over

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People: Afar -- 1,050,000, World A, though some Christians (no church)

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Population may be higher, as indicated by Caleb Prpoject figures. Source of CP figures uncertain.

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Caleb Project -- Ethiopia

Language: Afar

Part of the Afar cluster of the Horn of Africa-Cushitic Peoples block. A Bible portion was completed for this group in 1975. A New Testament was completed for this group in 1994. Radio Broadcasts are available for this group: FEBA. Gospel recordings are available for this group: GRI: Per Ross Lange 8/96.

Country: Djibouti -- Population: 200000

Map Coordinates: (11.3495, 42.7775). No known churches exist among this group; individual believers. At least one agency is active among this group with evangelizers on site. A mission agency has committed to try to reach this group.

Country: Eritrea -- Population: 260000

Nothing Christian happening among this group; no known believers. At least one mission agency is active among this group; called and committed evangelizers. A mission agency has committed to try to reach this group.

Country: Ethiopia -- Population: 1020000

Map Coordinates: (12.0229, 41.0145). Nothing Christian happening among this group; no known believers. At least one agency is active among this group with evangelizers on site. A mission agency has committed to try to reach this group.

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

AFAR (AFARAF, "DANAKIL", "DENKEL", <AFAR AF, ADAL) [AFR] 450,000 in Ethiopia (1994 UBS); 300,000 in Eritrea (1993), or .9% of the population; 300,000 in Djibouti (1996); 1,000,000 in all countries. Eastern lowlands, Afar Region. May also be in Somalia. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar. Dialects: NORTHERN AFAR, CENTRAL AFAR, AUSSA, BAADU (BA<ADU). The people are called "Danakil" in Arabic and by others, but that is considered to be offensive by the Afar; called 'Adal' in Amharic. Nomadic. Saho is related but distinct. Official literary language. 8% literate. People have suffered from recent famines. Grammar, dictionary. Typology: SOV. Desert. Coastal. Muslim, Christian. NT 1994. Bible portions 1975-1986.

Ethnologue -- Djibouti

AFAR ("DANAKIL", AFARAF) [AFR] 300,000 in Djibouti (1996), 55.23% of the population (1996); 450,000 in Ethiopia (1994 UBS); 300,000 in Eritrea (1993); 1,000,000 in all countries. May also be in Somalia. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar. The people are called "Danakil" by others, but this is considered offensive. Radio Djibouti broadcasts in Afar. Saho is distinct. Nomadic. Largely illiterate. Desert. Mountains. Pastoralists. Muslim. NT 1994. Bible portions 1975-1986.

Ethnologue -- Eritrea

AFAR (AFARAF, "DANAKIL", "DENKEL") [AFR] 300,000 in Eritrea (1993 Johnstone); 450,000 Ethiopia (1994 UBS); 300,000 in Djibouti (1996); 1,000,000 in all countries. Southern Eritrea. May also be in Somalia. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar. Dialects: CENTRAL AFAR, NORTHERN AFAR, AUSSA, BA'ADU. The people are called "Danakil" by others, but that is considered to be offensive by the Afar. Nomadic. Saho is related but distinct. Official literary language in Ethiopia. 8% literate. People have suffered from recent famines.

Typology: SOV. Muslim, Christian. NT 1994. Bible portions 1975-1986.

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People: Arsi (Arusi) -- 3,000,000, World A

 Selale -- 1,946,000, Unreached

[Also Major Peoples:

 Borana (Ethiopia and Kenya) -- 600,000, Unreached

 Guji -- 380,000, Evangelized

 Gabra (Gabbra) (Ethiopia and Kenya) -- 80,000 (?), Unreached]

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Figures on the Gabra are uncertain. Sources are unclear on whether there are actually any in Ethiopia. Arsi and Gabra may be Unreached, not world A. About 90,000 Borana are in Kenya. Most Gabra are in Kenya.

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Caleb Project -- Ethiopia

Language: Oromo, Arsi-Guji [Borana-Arsi-Guji -- OBJ]

Part of the Other - 2 cluster of the Horn of Africa-Cushitic Peoples block. A Bible portion was completed for this group in 1870. A New Testament was completed for this group in 1875. A Bible translation was completed for this group in 1995. Radio Broadcasts are available for this group: . The Jesus film is available for this group.

Country: Ethiopia -- Population: 3309000

Location:

Kenya bd to 300 k North. A group of churches exists among this group; no general acceptance of Christians. Multiple agencies are committed and involved in outreach among this group. A mission agency has committed to try to reach this group.information.

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

OROMO, BORANA-ARSI-GUJI (AFAN OROMO, SOUTHERN OROMO, "GALLA", "GALLINYA") [GAX] 3,809,000 in Ethiopia, including 1,331,000 Arsi, 380,000 Guji, 1,946,000 Salale; 152,000 in Kenya (1994); 3,763,000 in all countries. South Oromo Region. Also in Somalia. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Dialects: BORANA (BORAN, BORENA), ARSI (ARUSSI, ARUSI), GUJI (GUJJI, JEMJEM), KEREYU, SALALE (SELALE), GABRA (GABBRA, GEBRA). Called 'Borana' in Kenya. The name "Galla" is derogatory. Harar is closely related, but distinct enough to need separate literature. Below 5% literate. Typology: SOV. Muslim, traditional religion. Bible 1995. NT 1875-1979. Bible portions 1870-1966.

Ethnologue -- Kenya

BORANA (BORAN, BORANA, BOORAN, BORAAN, SOUTHERN OROMO, OROMO, "GALLA") [GAX] 152,000 in Kenya (1994 I. Larsen BTL), including 96,000 Borana (1994), 43,000 Gabra (1994), 13,000 Sakuye (1994); 3,657,000 in Ethiopia; 3,809,000 in all countries. Marsabit and Isiolo Districts, Eastern Province. Also in Somalia. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Dialects: BORAN, GABRA (GABBRA, GEBRA), SAKUYE (SAGUYE). Gabra and Sakuye may have significant dialect and language attitude differences from Borana. Also spoken by the younger Burji population around Marsabit and Moyale. The name 'Borana' is used almost exclusively in Kenya, but 'Oromo' is used in Ethiopia. Semi-nomadic. Desert. Pastoralists: camel, cattle. Boran: Muslim, Christian; Gabra: mainly traditional religion, Christian, some Muslim; Sakuye: Muslim, Christian. Bible 1995. NT 1875-1979. Bible portions 1870-1966.

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People: Beja (Eritrea, Sudan, Egypt) -- TOTAL 2,540,315, World A

 Beja (To Bedawie/Bedawi language) (Eritrea, Sudan) -- 288,465, World A

 Beja (Tigre language) (Eritrea, Sudan) -- 203,000, World A

 Beja (Arabic language) (Sudan, Egypt) -- 2,048,850, World A

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Figures are from Orville B. Jenkins, based on a survey and study by OBJ and Robin Hadaway in 1996. The Beja speak three different languages, and have a complex multi-caste system. Across the three languages, they still maintain a common identity. The Beni-Amer group, speaking Tigre (a Semitic language related to Amharic and Tigrinya), or bilingual in To Bedawie, and often trilingual in Arabic, are associated with the Tigre, as an upper caste, but Tigre tribes are not considered Beja. The Beni-Amer, and perhaps others, appear to be partially of Arab racial stock.

The name Bedawi does not indicate a genetic relationship with the Arabic language, but likely reflects the Arabic origin of some clans/castes, and a recent extensive association with Arabs and growoing use of Sudanese Arabic by various Beja groups. The Beja cultural base is Cushitic, the root racial stock being related to the ancient Egyptians, as is the Beja language. Their lifestyle is similar to Arab Bedouins. They also share trading areas with the Rashaida, a Bedouin group.

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Ethnologue -- Eritrea

BEDAWI (BEJA, BEDAWIYE, BEDAWYE, BEDAUYE, BEDWI, BEDYA, BEDJA, BENI-AMER, BENI-AMIR, BENI-AAMIR, LOBAT) [BEI] 120,000 in Eritrea (1993 Johnstone); 20,000 Hadendoa (1970 Bender); 951,000 in Sudan (1982); 77,000 in Egypt (1993); 1,148,000 in all countries. The Hadendoa dialect is on the Red Sea in Sudan. Also in southern Egypt. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, North. Dialects: HADAREB (HADAAREB), BISHARIN (BISARIN, BISARIAB), HADENDOA (HADENDOWA). Some of the people are called 'Beni-Amer'. Reported that speakers are bilingual in Eritrea. Typology: SOV, postpositions, causatives, reciprocals, reflexives, subject suffixes distinguish person, number, gender. Muslim.

Ethnologue -- Sudan

BEDAWI (BEJA, BEDAWIYE, BEDAUYE, TO-BEDAWIE, BEDJA, BENI-AMER) [BEI] 951,000 in Sudan (1982 SIL); including 30,000 Hadendoa, 15,000 Bisharin (1982 SIL); 120,000 in Eritrea (1993); 77,000 in Egypt (1993); 1,148,000 in all countries. Northeastern Sudan along the Red Sea coast. Also in adjacent southeastern Egypt. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, North. Dialects: HADENDOA (HADENDOWA, HADENDIWA), HADAREB (HADAAREB), BISHARIN (BISARIAB). Little vocabulary in common with other Cushitic languages, but a great deal of the verbal morphology is similar. 'Bedawi' is their own name. 'Beni-Amer' is the name of some of the people. Halenga and Arteiga are ethnic groups. Arabic or Tigre are used as second languages. Grammars, dictionary. Desert, coastal. Pastoralists. Sunni Muslim.

Ethnologue -- Eritrea

TIGRÉ (KHASA, XASA) [TIE] 683,000 in all countries (1993 Johnstone). Also in Sudan. Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, South, Ethiopian, North. Dialect: MENSA. Spoken by some Beni-Amer called 'Lobot'. Believed by some to be the direct linguistic descendant of Ge'ez. Incorrectly called 'Ge'ez'. People have suffered from recent famines. Typology: SOV. Muslim. Bible 1988. NT 1902-1931. Bible portions 1889-1981.

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People: Digil, Mirifle, Rahawiin (Rahanwiin) Somali -- 1,500,000

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A group of clans speaking an older form of the Somali group of languages. Interintelligibility of these diaects varies, so the Digil group may be a separate language, requiring separate targeting and resources. None of these lanaguges are written. Literacy is in the Standard Somali of the North and Mogadishu, which must be learned as a separate language by Maay speakers, and thus is not a suitable evangelization medium. Standard Somali would, however, be the access language for Maay, for initial contact and for learning Maay. Rahanwiin is the northern pronuniciation of the name. Rahawiin or Raawiin represent the Maay form.

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Caleb Project -- Somalia

Language: Maay

Part of the Somali cluster of the Horn of Africa-Cushitic Peoples block.

Country: Somalia -- Population: 1500000

Location:

Jamaame District of Lower Jubba Region. Nothing Christian happening among this group; no known believers. At least one mission agency is active among this group; called and committed evangelizers. A mission agency has committed to try to reach this group.

Ethnologue -- Somalia

MAAY (AF-MAAY TIRI, AF-MAAY, AF-MAY, AF-MAYMAY, RAHANWEEN, RAHANWEYN) [QMA] 500,000 to 1,000,000 (1992); 700,000 to 1,500,000 including the Digil dialects or languages. Southern Somalia, Gedo Region, Middle and Lower Shabeelle, Middle and Lower Jubba, Baay, and Bakool regions. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali. Dialect: AF-HELLEDI. It may be more than one language; the dialects form a continuum. Standard Somali is difficult or unintelligible to Maay speakers, except for those who have learned it through mass communications, urbanization, and internal movement. They tend to not travel much. Different sentence structure and phonology from Somali. The Rahanwiin (Rahanweyn) clan confederacy speak various Maay dialects or languages. Af-Helledi is a Maay secret language used by hunters. [Maay is also spoken by about 20,000 Garre-Daraawe in Kenya. --OBJ] Used by the Tunni, Jiiddu, Garre and Dabarre as second language. Muslim.

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People: Hadiyya -- 1,000,000, Christian

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Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

HADIYYA (ADIYA, ADIYE, HADIYA, HADYA, ADEA, HADIA, "GUDEILLA", "GUDELLA") [HDY] 1,000,000 (1991 SIL). Gurage, Kambaata, Hadiyya Region, between the Omo and Billate rivers, in and around Hosaina town. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. Dialects: LEEMO, SORO. 82% lexical similarity with Libido, 56% with Kambaata, 54% with Alaba, 53% with Sidamo. An official literary language. 5% to 25% literate. "Gudella" is a derogatory name. Typology: SOV, passive, reflexive, causative, middle verbs. Christian. NT 1992. Bible portions 1935.

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People: Ittu (Qotu) -- 2,142,000, Unreached

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Different sources have this people referenced under different names with different population figures. There should be only one entry for Ittu/Qotu Oromo, with the population given here.

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Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

OROMO, QOTU (EASTERN OROMO, HARAR, HARER, "QOTTU", "QUOTTU", "QWOTTU", "KWOTTU", ITTU) [HAE] 2,142,000 (1993 Johnstone). South central, Sidamo Province. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. People use Amharic as second language. Closely related to Borana Oromo, but divergent. Typology: SOV. Muslim. Work in progress.

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People: Kambaata -- 1,200,000 (?), Unevangelized (Strong Church)

 Qebena -- 5,400, Unreached (Church is present)

 Timbaro (Timbara)-- Uncertain size or status

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Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

KAMBAATA (KAMBATTA, KAMBATA, KEMBATA, KEMATA, KAMBARA, DONGA) [KTB] 1,000,000 (1987). Southwest Gurage, Kambaata, Hadiyya Region. Durame is the main town. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. Dialects: TAMBARO, TIMBARA (TIMBARO, TIMBAARO), QEBENA (QABENA, KEBENA, K'ABENA). 95% lexical similarity with Timbaro dialect, 81% with Allaaba, 62% with Sidamo, 57% with Libido, 56% with Hadiyya. Qebena may be a separate language. An official literary language. 5% to 25% literate. Typology: SOV, passive, middle, causative verbs, subject suffixes distinguish person, number, gender. Christian, some Muslim. NT 1992. Bible portions 1979-1990.

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People: Macha -- 2,000,000, Unreached (?)

 Wellaga -- 2,200,000, Unreached (?)

 Wello -- 171,000, Unevangelized

 Raya -- 54,000, Unreached

 Tulema (Shoa) -- 3,500,000, Evangelized or Christian

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There is some uncertainty on the status of the Macha and Wellaga groups. Ackerman's references confuse the peoples of this language cluster with the Guji of the Borana-Arsi-Guji language cluster. The other sources are unclear. It is possible one or both of the Macha and Wellaga ethnic groups are beyond unreached status, as unevangelized or evangelized.

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Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

OROMO, WEST-CENTRAL (GALLA, OROMOO) [GAZ] 8,000,000 in all countries (1991 SIL). Oromo Region, West and Central Ethiopia, and along the Rift Valley escarpment east of Dessie and Woldiya. Also in Egypt. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Dialects: WESTERN OROMO, CENTRAL OROMO. Subdialects are Mecha (Maccha, Wellaga, Wallaga, Wollega), Raya, Wello (Wollo), Tulema (Tulama, Shoa, Shewa). Official literary language. Weekly newspaper. Daily radio and TV broadcasts by government and religious groups. 5% to 15% literate. Dictionary, grammar. Trade language. Typology: SOV. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible 1899-1994. NT 1876-1979. Bible portions 1841-1981.

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People: Qimant -- about 1,000,000, Christian  

 Qwara (Falasha) -- a few hundred, Jewish

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Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

AGAW, WESTERN [QIM] 350,000 or fewer speakers out of more than 1,000,000 in the ethnic group (1994 A. Nega). Northwest Amhara Region, north of Lake Tana. Communities of Qwara or Kayla are near Addis Ababa and in Eritrea. None in Sudan. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Western. Dialects: QIMANT (KEMANT, KIMANT, KEMANAT, KAMANT, CHEMANT, QEMANT), DEMBIYA (DEMBYA, DAMBYA), HWARASA (QWARA, QWARINA, "KARA"), KAYLA, SEMYEN, ACHPAR, KWOLASA (KWOLACHA). A separate language from Awngi, Bilen, and Xamtanga. It is reported that all Qimant are bilingual in Amharic. Qwara is extinct, with all the ethnic group speaking Amharic. Kayla or Qwara people are called 'Falashi', the so-called 'Black Jews'. Ge'ez is used as liturgical language, but many use a few Hebrew words in prayer. No evidence of a distinct Jewish language. 'Kara' is incorrect spelling. Typology: SOV. Christian (Qimant), Jewish (Kayla). Bible portions 1885. Survey needed.

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People: Sidamo -- 1,500,000, Unevangelized

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Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

SIDAMO (SIDÁMO 'AFÓ, SIDAMINYA) [SID] 1,500,000 (1992). South central Ethiopia, northeast of Lake Abaya and southeast of Lake Awasa (Sidamo Awraja). Awasa is the capital of the Sidama Region. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. 64% lexical similarity with Allaaba, 62% with Kambaata, 53% with Hadiyya. Official literary language. 5% to 25% literate. Grammar. Dictionary. Typology: SOV. NT 1990. Bible portions 1933.

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People: Somali (many clans/federations/alliances in Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Kenya, UAE, Yemen, Tanzania, others) -- 8,335,000, World A

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It is likely these figures, from the 1996 Ethnologue, are too high, in light of the attrition of the long war, and successive droughts and famine. Field workers with the Somali indicate the number may be more like 5-6 million. Any figure is an estimate, as for several years it has been almost impossible now to have people on the ground for any comprehensive information. It appears likely also, that numbers for the Maay-speaking population, previously included with the Somali totals, have not been deducted. Figures are murky. There are also considerable numbers, unreported and uncertain, in Canada and Australia, according to workers among them in those countries.

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Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

SOMALI (STANDARD SOMALI, COMMON SOMALI) [SOM] 2,050,000 in Ethiopia (1993 Johnstone); 8,335,000 in all countries. Southeast Ethiopia, Somali Region. Also in Somalia, Kenya, Djibouti, Yemen, UAE. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali. Daarood, Ogaadeen, Dir, Gadabuursi, Hawiye, and Isxaaq are major clan families in Ethiopia. Official literary language. Typology: SOV. Agriculturalists. Muslim, Christian. Bible 1979. NT 1972-1976. Bible portions 1915-1935.

Ethnologue -- Kenya

SOMALI (STANDARD SOMALI) [SOM] 312,339 in Kenya (1989 census); 45,098 Somali, 27,244 Hawiyah, 100,400 in Degodia, 139,597 in Ogaden (1989 census); 8,335,000 in all countries. Northeastern Province around Wajir. Also Somalia, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Yemen, UAE. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali. Dialects: DEGODIA, OGADEN. Dialect differences cut across clan differences. Daarood, Dir, Hawiye, Ogaadeen are clan families in Kenya. The people are nomadic. 15% to 25% literate. The Ogaadeen are 1% literate. Pastoralists: camel, sheep, goats. Muslim. Bible 1979. NT 1972-1976. Bible portions 1915-1935.

Ethnologue -- Somalia

SOMALI (AF-SOOMAALI, AF-MAXAAD TIRI, COMMON SOMALI, STANDARD SOMALI) [SOM] 5,400,000 to 6,700,000 in Somalia (1991); 2,050,000 in Ethiopia (1993); 312,339 in Kenya (1989); 181,420 in Djibouti (1996); 290,000 in Yemen (1993); 100,000 in United Arab Emirates (1993); 1,300 in Finland; 8,335,000 in all countries. Also in Saudi Arabia, Italy, Sweden, United Kingdom. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali. Dialects: NORTHERN SOMALI, BENAADIR, AF-ASHRAAF (ASHRAAF). The language of most of the people of the country. Northern Somali is the basis for Standard Somali. It is readily intelligible by speakers of Benaadir Somali, but difficult or unintelligible to Maay and Digil speakers, except for those who have learned it through mass communications, urbanization, and internal movement. The Rahanwiin (Rahanweyn) are a large clan confederacy in southern Somalia, speaking various Maay dialects or languages (Central Somali). The Digil are a clan confederacy speaking Central Somali [Maay -- OBJ] varieties.

Daarood is a large clan family in northeast Somalia and the Ogaadeen region of Ethiopia, extreme southern Somalia and northeast Kenya which speaks several different dialects. Dir is a clan family with various clans in Djibouti, Ethiopia, throughout Somalia and northeast Kenya. The Gadabuursi are a section of the Dir living in northwest Somalia and adjoining parts of Djibouti and Ethiopia, and speaking Northern Common Somali. The Isxaaq are a major clan grouping in northest Somalia, some in Djibouti and Ethiopia, speaking Northern Common Somali.

The Hawiye are a major clan family living in central southern Somalia, parts of Ethiopia, and extreme northeast Kenya. Hawiye northern clans (Habar Gidir) speak a dialect of Common Somali similar to the adjacent Daarood clans, while Hawiye southern clans (especially Abgaal and Gaaljaal) speak the Benaadir dialect of Common Somali. Ogaadeen is the largest clan within the Daarood clan family, living in eastern Ethiopia, extreme southern Somalia and northeast Kenya, speaking various forms of Northern Common Somali.

'Sab' is an ambiguous term used by some scholars to refer to various lower caste clans. 'Medibaan' is a low caste clan within the Hawiye. 'Benaadir' as an ethnic group refers to the residents of the coastal cities. Those in Merka and Muqdisho who speak Af-Ashraaf, a distinct variety which may have limited inherent intelligibility with Standard Somali. (Most of these fled to Kenya because of the current fighting.) Standard Somali is used in primary education. The government adopted the Roman script in 1972. The Osmania script is no longer used. 25% literacy in cities, 10% in rural areas. Grammar, dictionary. National language. Pastoralists; agriculturalists: sugar, bananas, sorghum, corn, gum, incense; miners: iron, tin, gypsum, bauxite, uranium.

Muslim, Christian. Bible 1979. NT 1972-1976. Bible portions 1915-1935.

 

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Cushite Peoples -- 100,000 to 999,999

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Awngi (Southern Agau) -- 490,000, Unreached

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Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

AWNGI (AWIYA, AWI, AGAW, AGAU, AGEW, AGOW, AWAWAR, DAMOT, KWOLLANYOCH) [AWN] 490,000 in Ethiopia (1993 Johnstone). Amhara Region. Widely scattered parts of Agew Midir and Metekel, southwest of Lake Tana. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Southern. A separate language. 80% to 90% of speakers use Amharic as second language. Typology: SOV. Agriculturalists.

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People: Borana (Ethiopia and Kenya) -- 600,000, Unreached

 Guji -- 380,000, Evangelized

 Gabra (Gabbra) (Ethiopia and Kenya) -- 80,000 (?), Unreached

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Smaller peoples speaking the same languge as the Arsi Oromo. Figures on the Gabra are uncertain. Sources are unclear on whether there are actually any in Ethiopia. Gabra may be Unreached, not world A. About 90,000 Borana are in Kenya. Most Gabra are in Kenya.

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Caleb Project -- Ethiopia

Language:  Borana

Part of the Other - 2 cluster of the Horn of Africa-Cushitic Peoples block. A Bible portion was completed for this group in 1870. A New Testament was completed for this group in 1875. A Bible translation was completed for this group in 1995. Radio Broadcasts are available for this group . The Jesus film is available for this group.

Country:  Ethiopia -- Population: 500000 [Plus 90,000 - 100,000 in Kenya -- OBJ]

Location:

Southern Ethiopia. Total land area occupied by the Borana in Ethiopia is about 94,000 sq. km. Roughly 2400 evangelical Borana believers live in Ethiopia. Nothing Christian happening among this group; no known believers. No known outreach is happening among this group; no agency or group targeting. A mission agency has committed to try to reach this group. Joshua Project Database Record Status: Active, Under Review.

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

OROMO, BORANA-ARSI-GUJI (AFAN OROMO, SOUTHERN OROMO, "GALLA", "GALLINYA") [GAX] 3,809,000 in Ethiopia, including 1,331,000 Arsi, 380,000 Guji, 1,946,000 Salale; 152,000 in Kenya (1994); 3,763,000 in all countries. South Oromo Region. Also in Somalia. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Dialects: BORANA (BORAN, BORENA), ARSI (ARUSSI, ARUSI), GUJI (GUJJI, JEMJEM), KEREYU, SALALE (SELALE), GABRA (GABBRA, GEBRA). Called 'Borana' in Kenya. The name "Galla" is derogatory. Harar is closely related, but distinct enough to need separate literature. Below 5% literate. Typology: SOV. Muslim, traditional religion. Bible 1995. NT 1875-1979. Bible portions 1870-1966.

Ethnologue -- Kenya

BORANA (BORAN, BORANA, BOORAN, BORAAN, SOUTHERN OROMO, OROMO, "GALLA") [GAX] 152,000 in Kenya (1994 I. Larsen BTL), including 96,000 Borana (1994), 43,000 Gabra (1994), 13,000 Sakuye (1994); 3,657,000 in Ethiopia; 3,809,000 in all countries. Marsabit and Isiolo Districts, Eastern Province. Also in Somalia. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Dialects: BORAN, GABRA (GABBRA, GEBRA), SAKUYE (SAGUYE). Gabra and Sakuye may have significant dialect and language attitude differences from Borana. Also spoken by the younger Burji population around Marsabit and Moyale. The name 'Borana' is used almost exclusively in Kenya, but 'Oromo' is used in Ethiopia. Semi-nomadic. Desert. Pastoralists: camel, cattle. Boran: Muslim, Christian; Gabra: mainly traditional religion, Christian, some Muslim; Sakuye: Muslim, Christian. Bible 1995. NT 1875-1979. Bible portions 1870-1966.

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People: Gedeo (Darasa) -- 700,000 (?), Unreached

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Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

GEDEO (GEDDEO, DERESA, DERASA, DARASA, DERASANYA, DARASSA) [DRS] 500,000 (1982 SIL). Central highland area, southwest of Dilla and east of Lake Abaya. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. 60% lexical similarity with Sidamo (closest), 57% with Alaba, 54% with Kambaata, 51% with Hadiyya. Official literary language. 5% to 25% literate. Typology: SOV, causative, middle, passive verbs. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. NT 1986. Bible portions 1980.

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People: Konso -- 200,000, Unreached

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Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

KOMSO (KONSO, CONSO, GATO, AF-KARETI, KARATE, KARETI) [KXC] 200,000 (1993 Johnstone). South of Lake Ciamo in the bend of the Sagan River. A few migrants in Kenya. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole. 51% lexical similarity with Bussa, 41% with Gawwada, 31% with Tsamai. 1% to 15% literate. Typology: SOV. Deciduous forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. Traditional religion. Bible portions 1996. Work in progress.

--------------------------------------------------

 

People Libido (Maraqo) -- 100,000+, Unreached

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Caleb Project -- Ethiopia

Language:  Libido

Part of the Other - 2 cluster of the Horn of Africa-Cushitic Peoples block.

Country:  Ethiopia -- Population: 100000

Map Coordinates: (8.0593, 38.4549). Roughly 30 evangelical Libido (Maraqo) believers live in Ethiopia. No known churches exist among this group; individual believers. At least one agency is active among this group with evangelizers on site. A mission agency has committed to try to reach this group.

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

LIBIDO (MARAQO, MARAKO) [LIQ] 100,000 possibly (1991 SIL). Hadiyya, Kambaata, Gurage Region, northeast of Hosaina. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. Syntactic, morphological, and lexical differences from Hadiyya. 82% lexical similarity with Hadiyya, 57% with Kambaata, 56% with Allaaba, 53% with Sidamo. 1% to 15% literate. Typology: SOV, passive, reflexive, causative, middle voice verbs. Muslim.

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People: Saho -- 144,000, Unreached

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Caleb Project -- Ethiopia file (Eritrea info)

Language: Saho

Part of the Afar cluster of the Horn of Africa-Cushitic Peoples block. Gospel recordings are available for this group: GRI: SAHO (Ethiopia) Messages.

Country: Eritrea -- Population: 144000

Nothing Christian happening among this group; no known believers. No known outreach is happening among this group; no agency or group targeting. No missions effort commitment has been registered for this group.

Ethnologue -- Eritrea

SAHO (SAO, SHAHO, SHOHO, SHIHO) [SSY] 144,000 (1993 Johnstone). Southern Eritrea. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Saho-Afar. Dialect: IROB. Very close to Afar. Ethnic group names are Asa'orta, Hadu (Hazu), Miniferi. Nomadic. They do not accept outsiders. They have suffered from recent famines. Below 5% literate. Dictionary. Typology: SOV. Muslim, Christian.

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Wello -- 171,000, Unevangelized

[Also related Minor People: Raya -- 54,000, Unreached]

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Smaller group related to the Macha, Tulema (Shoa) and Wellaga peoples, speaking the same language. Ackerman's report confuses the peoples of this language cluster with the Guji of the Borana-Arsi-Guji language cluster. Evangelization status is unclear.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

OROMO, WEST-CENTRAL (GALLA, OROMOO) [GAZ] 8,000,000 in all countries (1991 SIL). Oromo Region, West and Central Ethiopia, and along the Rift Valley escarpment east of Dessie and Woldiya. Also in Egypt. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Dialects: WESTERN OROMO, CENTRAL OROMO. Subdialects are Mecha (Maccha, Wellaga, Wallaga, Wollega), Raya, Wello (Wollo), Tulema (Tulama, Shoa, Shewa). Official literary language. Weekly newspaper. Daily radio and TV broadcasts by government and religious groups. 5% to 15% literate. Dictionary, grammar. Trade language. Typology: SOV. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible 1899-1994. NT 1876-1979. Bible portions 1841-1981.

 

====================================

 

Cushite Peoples under 100,000 population

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Alaba -- about 90,000, Unreached

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

ALABA (ALLAABA, HALABA) [ALB] 83,000 (1991 SIL). Rift Valley southwest of Lake Shala. Separated by a river from the Kambatta. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. 81% lexical similarity with Kambaata, 64% with Sidamo, 56% with Libido, 54% with Hadiyya. There is interest in using Alaba for primary education. 5% literate. Typology: SOV. Muslim, Christian. Work in progress.

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Arbore -- maybe 5000, Unreached

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

ARBORE (ARBORA, ERBORE, IRBORE) [ARV] 1,000 to 5,000 (1982 SIL). Extreme southwest, Omo Region, near Lake Stefanie. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana. Komso is the lingua franca. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Baiso -- 1,000, Unreached

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

BAISO (BAYSO, ALKALI) [BSW] 1,010 (1995 SIL). Alge village near Merab Abaya, half way between Soddo and Arba Minch (390); Gidicho Island, Baiso and Shigima villages (200); and Welege (420) Island on Lake Abaya, and the western shore of the lake. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana. The people are bilingual in Wolaytta, but have resisted extinction for at least 1,000 years (Brenzinger, Heine, and Sommer 1991). They are positive toward the idea of Baiso literature. Typology: SOV. Fishermen, agriculturalists, weavers, hippo hunters. Survey needed.

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Bilen -- 70,000, Unreached or Unevangelized

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Eritrea

BILEN (BOGO, BOGOS, BILAYN, BILIN, BALEN, BELENI, BELEN, BILEIN, BILENO, NORTH AGAW) [BYN] 70,000 (1995). Central Eritrea, in and around the town of Keren. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Northern. 60% of the Christians are partly bilingual in Tigrinya, 70% of the Muslims appear to be bilingual in Tigré. The younger generation mixes their speech with Arabic. Some are bilingual in Nara or Kunama. Typology: SOV. Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1882-1984.

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Boni (Somalia and Kenya) -- 5500, World A

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Somalia

BONI (AWEERA, AWEER, WAATA, SANYE) [BOB] 5,000 in all countries (1980); few, if any, in Somalia (1991); 3,500 in Kenya (1994). Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Rendille-Boni. Reported to be linguistically close to Garre of Somalia, but not close in appearance or culture. Hunters. Muslim.

Ethnologue -- Kenya

BONI (AWEERA, AWEER, WAATA, WATA, SANYE, WASANYE, WABONI, BON, OGODA, WATA-BALA) [BOB] 3,500 in Kenya (1994); 5,000 in all countries (1980). In forest hinterland behind Lamu, Lamu and Tana River districts, Coast Province; Garissa District, North-Eastern Province. Also in Somalia. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Rendille-Boni. Many are monolingual. Some are bilingual in Somali, Orma, or Swahili. Close to Garre of Somalia. Distinct from Sanye (Waat) of the Oromo Group or Dahalo (Sanye) of Southern Cushitic. Vernacular literature is desired. They are being settled in scattered villages and encouraged to switch to farming. 50% to 75% literate. Forest. Hunter-gatherers, limited agriculturalists: maize, beans. Traditional religion, Muslim.

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Burji (Ethiopia and Kenya) -- 87,000, Largely Christian

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Christian percentage of Burji is growing. Those in Ethiopia have had Islamic influence. Many are still traditional. Borana is spoken by the younger Burji population around Marsabit (Kenya) and Moyale (border of Ethiopia and Kenya).

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

BURJI (BAMBALA, BEMBALA, DAASHI) [BJI] 80,000 in Ethiopia (1994 UBS); 7,000 in Kenya (1994 I. Larsen BTL); 87,000 in all countries. South of Lake Ciamo. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. 41% lexical similarity with Sidamo (closest). Many speakers in Ethiopia are older. 1% to 15% literate. Dictionary. Typology: SOV, passives, middle voice, causatives, subject suffixes distinguish person, number, gender. Christian, Muslim. NT 1993.

Ethnologue -- Kenya

BURJI (BAMBALA) [BJI] 7,000 in Kenya (1994 I. Larsen BTL); 80,000 in Ethiopia (1994 UBS); 87,000 in all countries. Mainly around Marsabit township, Moyale. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. Brought from Ethiopia in the 1930's to build roads from Moyale to other north Kenya towns. Ethiopia is considered the traditional home territory, but some migration occurs between the two countries. Kenyan resident Burji below 40 years are apparently functionally bilingual in Boran, and those under 20 years have lost facility in Burji. 15% to 25% literate. Mountain slope. Businessmen, agriculturalists. Christian, traditional religion. NT in press (1995).

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Bussa -- 6000, Unreached

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

BUSSA (DOBASE, D'OOPACE, D'OPAASUNTE, LOHU, MASHILE, MASHELLE, MASHOLLE, MOSIYE, MUSIYE, GOBEZE, GOWASE, GORAZE, ORASE) [DOX] 6,000 (1995 Gidole govt. officials). Omo Region, west of Lake Chamo. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay. 78% lexical similarity with Gawwada, 51% with Komso, 86% with Gollango, 80% with Harso, 61% with Tsamai. There is a dialect chain with Komso-Dirasha-Dobase, where bilingualism reinforces intelligibility of Komso and Dirasha. Typology: SOV. Deciduous forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists. Survey needed.

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Dabarre and Iroole Somali -- 50,000, World A

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Caleb Project -- Somalia

Language: Dabarre

Part of the Other - 2 cluster of the Horn of Africa-Cushitic Peoples block.

Country: Somalia -- Population: 20000

Nothing Christian happening among this group; no known believers. No known outreach is happening among this group; no agency or group targeting. No missions effort commitment has been registered for this group. Joshua Project Database Record Status: Active, Under Review.

Ethnologue -- Somalia

DABARRE (AF-DABARRE) [DBR] 20,000 to 50,000 (1992). Spoken by the Dabarre clan around Dhiinsoor District, May Region, and the Iroole Clan in nearby Baraawe District, Lower Shabeelle Region, and in Qansax Dheere. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali. Dialects: DABARRE, IROOLE (AF-IROOLE). A very distinctive language in the Digil clan family. Muslim. Survey needed.

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People: Daasanech -- 30,000 (Ethiopia and Kenya), Unreached

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

DAASANECH (DASENECH, DAASENECH, DATHANAIK, DATHANAIC, DATHANIK, GHELEBA, GELEBA, GELEB, GELEBINYA, GALLAB, GALUBA, GELAB, GELUBBA, DAMA, MARILLE, MERILE, MERILLE, MORILLE, RESHIAT, RUSSIA, "SHANGILLA") [DSH] 30,000 in all countries (1983 SIL); 2,500 in Kenya (1980 SIL). Lower Omo River, along Lake Turkana, extending into Kenya. Primarily in Ethiopia. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana. An ethnic group name is 'Reshiat' (Russia) [Derivation in question. This name was given to them by the German explorer who found them in 1888. -- OBJ]. Typology: SOV. Semi-arid, desert. Plains. Pastoralists, agriculturalists: sorghum. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

Ethnologue -- Kenya

DAASANECH (DAASENECH, DASENECH, DATHANAIK, GELEBA, GHELEBA, GELEB, DAMA, MARILLE, RESHIAT, "SHANGILLA") [DSH] 2,500 in Kenya (1980 SIL); 30,000 in all countries (1983 SIL). Northeastern shore of Lake Turkana, around Illeret, Marsabit District, Eastern Province. Primarily in Ethiopia. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Western Omo-Tana. "Shangilla" is a derogatory name. 8 ethnic groups: Inkabelo (7,000), Inkoria (2,000), Naritch (Naarich 1,800), Elele (1,500), Randal (1,000), Oro (800), Koro (500), Riele (400). Below 5% literate. Typology: SOV. Semi arid desert. Plains. Pastoralists: cattle; agriculturalists: millet, tobacco; fishermen. Traditional religion, Christian. Work in progress.

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Dirasha -- 5000 (?)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

DIRASHA (DHIRASHA, DIRAASHA, DIRAYTA, GARDULLA, GHIDOLE, GIDOLE) [GDL] 5,000 (1982 SIL). Omo Region, in the hills west of Lake Chamo, around Gidole town. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Konso-Gidole. 55% lexical similarity with Komso. Part of a dialect chain with Komso and Bussa. Many are bilingual in Oromo or Komso. Typology: SOV, verb suffix morphology shows causative, reflexive, subject person, number, gender.

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Garre (Hawiye Somali) -- 50,000, World A

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Caleb Project -- Somalia

Language: Garre

Part of the Other - 2 cluster of the Horn of Africa-Cushitic Peoples block.

Country: Somalia -- Population: 50000

Nothing Christian happening among this group; no known believers. No known outreach is happening among this group; no agency or group targeting. No missions effort commitment has been registered for this group. Joshua Project Database Record Status: Active, Under Review.

Ethnologue -- Somalia

GARRE (AF-GARRE) [GEX] 50,000 or more (1992); perhaps several hundred thousand in the ethnic group. Dominate areas of southern Somalia, especially in the Wanle Weyn-Buur Hakaba area; Baydhaba, Dhiinsoor, Buurhakaba, and Qoryooley districts; Middle and Lower Shabeelle and Bay regions. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali. Part of the Hawiye clan family. They consider themselves to be one people with the Garreh in Kenya, although they now speak different languages. Some ethnic Garre in Somalia speak Maay as mother tongue. Reported to be linguistically close to Boni. Muslim. Survey needed.

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People: Gawwada -- 76,000, Unreached

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

GAWWADA (GAUWADA, GAWATA, KAWWAD'A, KAWWADA) [GWD] 64,300 to 76,300 (1995), including 2,700 Dihina, 2,500 Gergere, 3,000 to 5,000 Gollango, 2,500 Gorose, 3,600 to 10,000 Harso. Omo Region, west of Lake Chamo. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Dullay. Dialects: DIHINA (TIHINA, TIHINTE), GERGERE (K'ARK'ARTE), GOBEZE, GOLLANGO (KOLLANKO), GOROSE (GORROSE, KORROSE), HARSO (WORASE). Gawwada has 78% lexical similarity with Bussa, 73% with Tsamai, 77% with Harso, 92% with Gollango, 41% with Komso. Harso has 80% with Dobase, 56% with Tsamai. Leaders use Amharic, Oromo, or Komso as second languages. 1% to 15% literate. Typology: SOV. Deciduous forest. Mountain slope. Peasant agriculturalists.

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People: Jiiddu -- 60,000, World A

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Caleb Project -- Somalia

Language: Jiiddu

Part of the Other - 2 cluster of the Horn of Africa-Cushitic Peoples block.

Country: Somalia -- Population: 20000

Nothing Christian happening among this group; no known believers. No known outreach is happening among this group; no agency or group targeting. No missions effort commitment has been registered for this group. Joshua Project Database Record Status: Active, Under Review.

Ethnologue -- Somalia

JIIDDU (JIDDU, AF-JIIDDU) [JII] 20,000 to 60,000 (1992). Lower Shabeelle Bay and Middle Jubba regions, Qoryooley, Dhiinsoor, Jilib, and Buurhakaba districts. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali. A distinct language from Somali and Tunni, usually grouped under the Digil dialects or languages. Different sentence structure and phonology from Somali. Closer to Somali than to Baiso. Spoken by the Jiiddu clan. Ethnic Jiiddu in Bale Province, Ethiopia speak Oromo as mother tongue. Some similarities to Konsoid languages, and to Gedeo, Alaba, Hadiyya, and Kambaata. Muslim. Survey needed.

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People: Kunfel -- about 1000, World A

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

KUNFAL (KUNFEL, KUMFEL) [XUF] Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, Central, Southern. The people are fairly bilingual in Amharic. Related to Awngi. Typology: SOV. Survey needed.

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Qebena -- 5,400, Unreached (Church is present)

 Timbaro -- Uncertain size (small) or status (prob. unevang or unreached)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

KAMBAATA (KAMBATTA, KAMBATA, KEMBATA, KEMATA, KAMBARA, DONGA) [KTB] 1,000,000 (1987). Southwest Gurage, Kambaata, Hadiyya Region. Durame is the main town. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Highland. Dialects: TAMBARO, TIMBARA (TIMBARO, TIMBAARO), QEBENA (QABENA, KEBENA, K'ABENA). 95% lexical similarity with Timbaro dialect, 81% with Allaaba, 62% with Sidamo, 57% with Libido, 56% with Hadiyya. Qebena may be a separate language. An official literary language. 5% to 25% literate. Typology: SOV, passive, middle, causative verbs, subject suffixes distinguish person, number, gender. Christian, some Muslim. NT 1992. Bible portions 1979-1990.

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People: Raya -- 54,000, Unreached

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Smallest group related to the Mega peoples Macha, Tulema (Shoa) and Wellaga, and the Minor people Wello, all speaking the same language. Ackerman's references confuse the peoples of this language cluster with the Guji of the Borana-Arsi-Guji language cluster. Evangelization status is unclear.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

OROMO, WEST-CENTRAL (GALLA, OROMOO) [GAZ] 8,000,000 in all countries (1991 SIL). Oromo Region, West and Central Ethiopia, and along the Rift Valley escarpment east of Dessie and Woldiya. Also in Egypt. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Dialects: WESTERN OROMO, CENTRAL OROMO. Subdialects are Mecha (Maccha, Wellaga, Wallaga, Wollega), Raya, Wello (Wollo), Tulema (Tulama, Shoa, Shewa). Official literary language. Weekly newspaper. Daily radio and TV broadcasts by government and religious groups. 5% to 15% literate. Dictionary, grammar. Trade language. Typology: SOV. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim. Bible 1899-1994. NT 1876-1979. Bible portions 1841-1981.

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People: Rer Bare (Bare) -- 2000, World A

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Ethiopia

RER BARE (REREBERE, ADONA) [RER] Wabi Shebelle River around Gode, eastern Ogaden, near Somali border. Also along the Ganale and Dawa rivers. Unclassified. They are called 'Rer Bare' in Somali, which means 'tribe Bare'. They speak Somali. It is uncertain if they spoke a different language earlier. Extinct.

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Tunni -- 60,000, World A

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Caleb Projet -- Somalia

Language: Tunni

Part of the Somali cluster of the Horn of Africa-Cushitic Peoples block.

Country: Somalia -- Population: 20000

Nothing Christian happening among this group; no known believers. No known outreach is happening among this group; no agency or group targeting. No missions effort commitment has been registered for this group.

Ethnologue -- Somalia

TUNNI (AF-TUNNI) [TQQ] 20,000 to 60,000 (1992). Lower Shabeelle and Middle Jubba regions, Dhiinsoor, Baraawe, and Jilib districts. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali. A distinct language from Somali or Jiiddu, usually grouped under the Digil dialects or languages. Different sentence structure and phonology from Somali. Maay language influences. Nomadic. Pastoralists: cattle, sheep, goats. Muslim. Survey needed.

 

====================

 

Cushite Peoples in Kenya only

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Ajuran (language Borana) -- 8000, World A

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Kenya

BORANA (BORAN, BORANA, BOORAN, BORAAN, SOUTHERN OROMO, OROMO, "GALLA") [GAX] 152,000 in Kenya (1994 I. Larsen BTL), including 96,000 Borana (1994), 43,000 Gabra (1994), 13,000 Sakuye (1994); 3,657,000 in Ethiopia; 3,809,000 in all countries. Marsabit and Isiolo Districts, Eastern Province. Also in Somalia. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Dialects: BORAN, GABRA (GABBRA, GEBRA), SAKUYE (SAGUYE). Gabra and Sakuye may have significant dialect and language attitude differences from Borana. Also spoken by the younger Burji population around Marsabit and Moyale. The name 'Borana' is used almost exclusively in Kenya, but 'Oromo' is used in Ethiopia. Semi-nomadic. Desert. Pastoralists: camel, cattle. Boran: Muslim, Christian; Gabra: mainly traditional religion, Christian, some Muslim; Sakuye: Muslim, Christian. Bible 1995. NT 1875-1979. Bible portions 1870-1966.

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People: Ajuran (language Garreh-Ajuran) -- 33,000, World A

 Garre (language Garreh-Ajuran) -- 65,000, World A

 Garre-Ajuran (language Garreh-Ajuran) -- 32,000, World A

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The Garreh and Ajuran maintain an identity with the Garreh, their parent people in the Somali confederation. They maintain relationshiips to some extent with the Garreh in Somalia, and some also speak Garreh, the original language of both, which is related to Somali. Garre-Ajuran is related to Oromo, not Somali. The Ajuran also speak Somali, and Swahili is a common second language for both peoples.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Kenya

GARREH-AJURAN [GGH] 128,000 including 96,000 Garreh, 32,000 Ajuran (1994 I. Larsen BTL). Mandera and Wajir districts, North-Eastern Province. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Dialects: GARREH (GURREH, GARRE, GARI), AJURAN (AJUURAAN, UJUURAAN). Ajuran may not be intelligible with Garreh. 85% lexical similarity with Boran on a short word list. Part of a dialect cluster. The Ajuran in Kenya speak Somali as second language. Swahili is also used, and some can also speak the Garre of Somalia, which their ancestors spoke. In Somalia the Ajuran speak a variety of Common Somali as mother tongue, and the Garre apparently speak a language related to Somali. 2% literacy rate. Semi-nomadic. Pastoralists. Muslim, Christian. Survey needed.

--------------------------------------------------

 

Dahalo (Sanye) (language Dahalo) -- 3000, World A

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Kenya

DAHALO (SANYE, GUO GARIMANI) [DAL] 3,000 possibly (1987 SIL). Near the mouth of the Tana River, Lamu and Tana River districts, Coast Province. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, South. The language has clicks, although unrelated to Khoisan languages. Distinct from Sanye (Waata). Highly assimilated and bilingual in Swahili. They live in isolated family groups. The name "Dahalo" is derogatory. Traditional religion. Survey needed.

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Garre-Daraawe (language Maay) -- 20,000, World A

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The figures for this small group of Somali federation people did not get reported in time to get in the 1996 Ethnolgoue updates for Kenya.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Somalia

MAAY (AF-MAAY TIRI, AF-MAAY, AF-MAY, AF-MAYMAY, RAHANWEEN, RAHANWEYN) [QMA] 500,000 to 1,000,000 (1992); 700,000 to 1,500,000 including the Digil dialects or languages. Southern Somalia, Gedo Region, Middle and Lower Shabeelle, Middle and Lower Jubba, Baay, and Bakool regions. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Somali. Dialect: AF-HELLEDI. It may be more than one language; the dialects form a continuum Standard Somali is difficult or unintelligible to Maay speakers, except for those who have learned it through mass communications, urbanization, and internal movement. They tend to not travel much. Different sentence structure and phonology from Somali. The Rahanwiin (Rahanweyn) clan confederacy speak various Maay dialects or languages. Af-Helledi is a Maay secret language used by hunters. Used by the Tunni, Jiiddu, Garre and Dabarre as second language. Muslim.

 

--------------------------------------------------

People: Orma (language Orma) -- 40,000, Unreached

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

The Orma are related to the Oromo. The Sanye (Waata) dialect is different from the Sanye (Waata) language. But the Sanye speakers of Oromo are related to the Sanye speakers of Sanye in origin, but are considered part of the Orma "tribe" now.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Kenya

ORMA (UARDAI, WADAI, WARDAY, WARDEI) [ORC] 55,000 (1994 I. Larsen BTL), including 5,000 Munyo. Garissa and Tana River districts, Northeastern and Coast provinces. The Oromo spoken in the Lower Jubba Region of Somalia may actually be Orma. The Orma controlled that area until the mid or late 19th century. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Dialects: MUNYO (KOROKORO, MUNYO YAYA), WAATA (SANYE), ORMA. A distinct language from Boran. They move from the lower Tana River inland toward Kitui District during rainy season. Savannah, semi-arid. Orma: pastoralists: cattle, sheep, goats; Munyo: agriculturalists, fishermen. Muslim. Work in progress.

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Rendille (language Rendille) -- 32,000, World A

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Kenya

RENDILLE (RENDILE, RANDILE) [REL] 32,000 (1994 I. Larsen BTL). Marsabit District, between Lake Turkana and Marsabit Mt., Eastern Province. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Rendille-Boni. Nomadic. The Ariaal Rendille people live in inter-dependent relationship with the Samburu and speak Samburu. 5% to 15% literate. Typology: SOV. Semi-arid desert. Pastoralists: camels, sheep, goats, cattle. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian. Bible portions 1993. Work in progress.

--------------------------------------------------

 

People: Sakuye (language Borana) -- 13,000, World A

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Kenya

BORANA (BORAN, BORANA, BOORAN, BORAAN, SOUTHERN OROMO, OROMO, "GALLA") [GAX] 152,000 in Kenya (1994 I. Larsen BTL), including 96,000 Borana (1994), 43,000 Gabra (1994), 13,000 Sakuye (1994); 3,657,000 in Ethiopia; 3,809,000 in all countries. Marsabit and Isiolo Districts, Eastern Province. Also in Somalia. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. Dialects: BORAN, GABRA (GABBRA, GEBRA), SAKUYE (SAGUYE). Gabra and Sakuye may have significant dialect and language attitude differences from Borana. Also spoken by the younger Burji population around Marsabit and Moyale. The name 'Borana' is used almost exclusively in Kenya, but 'Oromo' is used in Ethiopia. Semi-nomadic. Desert. Pastoralists: camel, cattle. Boran: Muslim, Christian; Gabra: mainly traditional religion, Christian, some Muslim; Sakuye: Muslim, Christian. Bible 1995. NT 1875-1979. Bible portions 1870-1966.

--------------------------------------------------

 

Sanye (Waata) (language Sanye) -- 5000, World A

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Ethnologue -- Kenya

SANYE (SANYA, WASANYE, ARIANGULU, LANGULO, WAATA, WAAT) [SSN] 5,000 (1980 SIL). Lower parts of Tana River, Lamu District, Coast Province. Afro-Asiatic, Cushitic, East, Oromo. They have maintained their language in spite of change in economy and pressure from other languages. Distinct language from Dahalo (Sanye) or Boni. 15% to 25% literate. Forest dwellers. Formerly hunter-gatherers, now agriculturalists. Largely Muslim, some Christian. Survey needed.

=================

Compiled by Orville Boyd Jenkins
26 November 1999
Posted 03 June 2000

researchguy@iname.com

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